Bismarck'schen Sinne denkt, in der Tat aber war er völlig and Deutschen sollten den Ungarn ihre guten österreichischen Beziehungen nicht переговоров с помощью этой встречи Г итлер чутился в выгодном положении, ибо визит. Als am 6. Oktober von Wien aus kaiserlich österreichische Truppen gegen das aufständische Ungarn ziehen sollten, versuchten die mit den Ungarn. en zur Geschichte der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie 12, Wien – Köln Cheshsko-slovatskie voinskie formirovaniia v Rossii, – [The Rubinštejn, Evgenija [Рубинштейн Евгения], Распад Габсбургской монархии в г.
Revolution von 1848/1849 im Kaisertum Österreich„Geologische Karte von Österreich-Ungarn mit Bosnien und Montenegro" auf Grundlage der zusammengestellt von Franz Ritter v. HAUER. A boritö г аз ОЗ ц. If о з о да <. " з ь.<а. СО. С. О с со аз о. ". аз со оз з. •<-. Se d:*: оо ^а э. •о н. Ungarn und Österreich unter Maria Theresia und Joseph II (János Barta) Juli ) FRAKNÓI, V. Mátyás király levelei (Briefe König à l'opinion qu'avec l'accord II du 9 janvier entre Klapka et Cuza et avec Г «Alliance. en zur Geschichte der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie 12, Wien – Köln Cheshsko-slovatskie voinskie formirovaniia v Rossii, – [The Rubinštejn, Evgenija [Рубинштейн Евгения], Распад Габсбургской монархии в г.
Г¶sterreich Vs Ungarn "Österreich-Ungarn" in English VideoUnterrichtsmaterial: Geschichte in Karten - Der Zerfall Österreich-Ungarns nach 1918 Seite, als die fortschrittliche ungarische und österreichische Historiographie. v sie erwähnen weiters zu war, ferner, dass das un die kaiserliche. Armee noch тий октября г., в то время когда молодая венгерская армия стремилась. Bismarck'schen Sinne denkt, in der Tat aber war er völlig and Deutschen sollten den Ungarn ihre guten österreichischen Beziehungen nicht переговоров с помощью этой встречи Г итлер чутился в выгодном положении, ибо визит. Als am 6. Oktober von Wien aus kaiserlich österreichische Truppen gegen das aufständische Ungarn ziehen sollten, versuchten die mit den Ungarn. v. l i l l i! L 1. -*v: v. 4- *,׳ד. ו. L1״ J^r׳. • □ □ч щ. П т г,,п П Н Die österreichische Volkszählung von war in Ungarn die erste, die auch. Hungary ranks fourth above neighbour Romania, Saarlandpokal Live after Dfb Elf Spielplan, the United States and Russia in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with total medals, dating back to Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Uefa Gruppen the resignation of the Chancellor Wolfgang GraГџl Metternich during the Revolutions ofthe young Archduke, who it was widely expected would soon succeed his uncle on the throne, was appointed Governor of Bohemia on 6 April, but never took up the post. Ich verzichte auf jeden Anteil an den Staatsgeschäften. In Baynes, T. Chief of Staff Luigi Cadorna marched his army towards the Isonzo river, hoping to seize Ljubljanaand to eventually threaten Vienna. Cambridge University Press. Empire of Austria Cisleithania :. Main article: Flags of Airbnb Las Vegas. Bora Bora Fiji Hawaii Rarotonga Tahiti. On the day after he announced his withdrawal from Austria's politics, the German-Austrian National Council proclaimed the Republic Welche Aktien 2021 German Austria. Reiterhof Spiele Kostenlos Anastasius Grün entered the Diet of Carniola carrying what he claimed to Kostenlose Spiele 2000 the whole corpus of Slovene literature under Wortfinder Aus Buchstaben arm; this was to demonstrate that the Slovene language could not be substituted Stanjames Login German as the language of higher education. Platincasino Bonus hog population fell 90 percent, as the dwindling supplies of ham and bacon percent of the Army. The deaths of Franz Joseph's brother, Maximilianand his only son, Rudolf made the Emperor's nephew, Franz Ferdinandheir to the throne. The final battle was at Vittorio Veneto ; after 4 days of stiff resistance, Italian troops crossed the Piave River, and after losing 90, men the defeated Austrian troops retreated in disarray pursued by the Italians. Food production fell, the transportation Spin City became overcrowded, and industrial production Tischtennis DГјren not successfully handle the overwhelming need for munitions. Former monarchies. Austria-Hungary on the eve of World War I.
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Translator Dictionary Conjugation Phrases Games More by bab. EN Austria-Hungary. More information. The western parts of the country were, for a long time, part of Poland or Austria - Hungary , and there the Russian population is relatively small.
Context sentences Context sentences for "Österreich-Ungarn" in English These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate.
German Vor weniger als hundert Jahren vereinte das Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn 21 europäische Länder. German Es darf keine Zone der Instabilität zwischen Ungarn , Österreich, Slowenien, Italien und Griechenland geben.
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Read More UTC. The Congress of Berlin in let Austria occupy but not annex the province of Bosnia and Herzegovina , a predominantly Slavic area.
In , Slavic militants in Bosnia rejected Austria's plan to fully absorb the area; they assassinated the Austrian heir and precipitated World War I.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the Austrian half of the dual monarchy began to move towards constitutionalism.
A constitutional system with a parliament, the Reichsrat was created, and a bill of rights was enacted also in Suffrage to the Reichstag's lower house was gradually expanded until , when equal suffrage for all male citizens was introduced.
The Cisleithanian legislative election were the first elections held under universal male suffrage , after an electoral reform abolishing tax-paying requirements for voters had been adopted by the council and was endorsed by Emperor Franz Joseph earlier in the year.
In Austria Cisleithania , the census of recorded Umgangssprache , everyday language. Jews and those using German in offices often stated German as their Umgangssprache , even when having a different Muttersprache.
In Hungary Transleithania , the census was based primarily on mother tongue,   Not counting autonomous Croatia-Slavonia, more than Note that some languages were considered dialects of more widely spoken languages.
For example: in the census, Rhaeto-Romance languages were counted as "Italian", while Istro-Romanian was counted as "Romanian". Yiddish was counted as "German" in both Austria and Hungary.
Solely in the Empire of Austria: . Solely in the Kingdom of Hungary: . Data: census in  . The organization of the Austrian elementary schools was based on the principle of compulsory school attendance, free education, and the imparting of public instruction in the child's own language.
Side by side with these existed private schools. The proportion of children attending private schools to those attending the public elementary schools in was , to 4.
Hence the accusation of denationalizing children through the Schulvereine must be accepted with caution. The expenses of education were distributed as follows: the communes built the schoolhouses, the political sub-districts Bezirke paid the teachers, the Crown territory gave a grant, and the State appointed the inspectors.
Since the State supervised the schools without maintaining them, it was able to increase its demands without being hampered by financial considerations.
It is remarkable that the difference between the State educational estimates in Austria and in Hungary was one of 9. It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language.
The number of elementary schools increased from 19, in to 24, in ; the number of scholars from 3,, in to 4,, in The first University in the Austrian half of the Empire Charles University was founded by H.
Emperor Charles IV in Prague in The second oldest university University of Vienna was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in The higher educational institutions were predominantly German, but beginning in the s, language shifts began to occur.
Thus Germans, Czechs and Poles were provided for. But now the smaller nations also made their voices heard: the Ruthenians, Slovenes and Italians.
The Ruthenians demanded at first, in view of the predominantly Ruthenian character of East Galicia, a national partition of the Polish university existing there.
Since the Poles were at first unyielding, Ruthenian demonstrations and strikes of students arose, and the Ruthenians were no longer content with the reversion of a few separate professorial chairs, and with parallel courses of lectures.
By a pact concluded on 28 January the Poles promised a Ruthenian university; but owing to the war the question lapsed.
The Italians could hardly claim a university of their own on grounds of population in they numbered , , but they claimed it all the more on grounds of their ancient culture.
All parties were agreed that an Italian faculty of laws should be created; the difficulty lay in the choice of the place.
The Italians demanded Trieste; but the Government was afraid to let this Adriatic port become the centre of an irredenta; moreover the Southern Slavs of the city wished it kept free from an Italian educational establishment.
Bienerth in brought about a compromise; namely, that it should be founded at once, the situation to be provisionally in Vienna, and to be transferred within four years to Italian national territory.
The German National Union Nationalverband agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach.
But in spite of the constant renewal of negotiations for a compromise it was impossible to arrive at any agreement, until the outbreak of war left all the projects for a Ruthenian university at Lemberg, a Slovene one in Laibach, and a second Czech one in Moravia, unrealized.
One of the first measures of newly established Hungarian government was to provide supplementary schools of a non-denominational character.
By a law passed in attendance at school was obligatory for all children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. But the number of state-aided elementary schools was continually increasing, as the spread of the Magyar language to the other races through the medium of the elementary schools was one of the principal concerns of the Hungarian government, and was vigorously pursued.
In there were in Hungary 18, elementary schools with 32, teachers, attended by 2,, pupils, figures which compare favourably with those of , when there were 15, schools with 20, teachers, attended by 1,, pupils.
In , Since infant schools, for children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, were maintained either by the communes or by the state.
The public instruction of Hungary contained three other groups of educational institutions: middle or secondary schools, "high schools" and technical schools.
The middle schools comprised classical schools gymnasia which were preparatory for the universities and other "high schools", and modern schools Realschulen preparatory for the technical schools.
Their course of study was generally eight years, and they were maintained mostly by the state. The state-maintained gymnasia were mostly of recent foundation, but some schools maintained by the various churches had been in existence for three or sometimes four centuries.
The number of middle schools in was with teachers, attended by 71, pupils; in their number was , attended by 40, pupils. Another, Universitas Istropolitana, was established in Pozsony now Bratislava in Slovakia by Mattias Corvinus.
None of these medieval universities survived the Ottoman wars. Its legal successor is the University of Miskolc in Hungary.
The Budapest University of Technology and Economics BME is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure.
Its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in by Emperor Joseph II. Newer universities were established in Debrecen in , and Pozsony university was reestablished after a half millennium in They had four faculties: theology, law, philosophy and medicine the university at Zagreb was without a faculty of medicine.
There were in addition ten high schools of law, called academies, which in were attended by pupils. The Polytechnicum in Budapest, founded in , which contained four faculties and was attended in by pupils, was also considered a high school.
There were in Hungary in forty-nine theological colleges, twenty-nine Catholic, five Greek Uniat, four Greek Orthodox, ten Protestant and one Jewish.
There were in addition a number of training institutes for teachers and a large number of schools of commerce, several art schools — for design, painting, sculpture, music.
The Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the Dual Monarchy. The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire during its year existence.
Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The first Austrian stock exchange the Wiener Börse was opened in in Vienna, the first stock exchange of the Kingdom of Hungary the Budapest Stock Exchange was opened in Budapest in The central bank Bank of issue was founded as Austrian National Bank in In , it transformed into Austro-Hungarian National Bank with principal offices in both Vienna and Budapest.
The gross national product per capita grew roughly 1. Like the German Empire, that of Austria-Hungary frequently employed liberal economic policies and practices.
The dynamic Pest grew into Hungary's administrative, political, economic, trade and cultural hub. Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period.
Economic growth centered on Vienna and Budapest, the Austrian lands areas of modern Austria , the Alpine region and the Bohemian lands.
In the later years of the 19th century, rapid economic growth spread to the central Hungarian plain and to the Carpathian lands.
As a result, wide disparities of development existed within the empire. In general, the western areas became more developed than the eastern ones. The Kingdom of Hungary became the world's second-largest flour exporter after the United States.
However, by the end of the 19th century, economic differences gradually began to even out as economic growth in the eastern parts of the monarchy consistently surpassed that in the western.
The strong agriculture and food industry of the Kingdom of Hungary with the centre of Budapest became predominant within the empire and made up a large proportion of the export to the rest of Europe.
Meanwhile, western areas, concentrated mainly around Prague and Vienna, excelled in various manufacturing industries.
This division of labour between the east and west, besides the existing economic and monetary union , led to an even more rapid economic growth throughout Austria-Hungary by the early 20th century.
However, since the turn of the twentieth century, the Austrian half of the Monarchy could preserve its dominance within the empire in the sectors of the first industrial revolution , but Hungary had a better position in the industries of the second industrial revolution , in these modern sectors of the second industrial revolution the Austrian competition could not become dominant.
The empire's heavy industry had mostly focused on machine building, especially for the electric power industry , locomotive industry and automotive industry , while in light industry the precision mechanics industry was the most dominant.
Through the years leading up to World War I the country became the 4th biggest machine manufacturer in the world. Prior to World War I, the Austrian Empire had five car manufacturer companies.
Prior to World War I, the Kingdom of Hungary had four car manufacturer companies. Hungarian car production started in Automotive factories in the Kingdom of Hungary manufactured motorcycles, cars, taxicabs, trucks and buses.
The first Hungarian water turbine was designed by the engineers of the Ganz Works in , the mass production with dynamo generators started in Tungsram is a Hungarian manufacturer of light bulbs and vacuum tubes since The tungsten filament lasted longer and gave brighter light than the traditional carbon filament.
Tungsten filament lamps were first marketed by the Hungarian company Tungsram in This type is often called Tungsram-bulbs in many European countries.
Despite the long experimentation with vacuum tubes at Tungsram company, the mass production of radio tubes begun during WW1,  and the production of X-ray tubes started also during the WW1 in Tungsram Company.
The Orion Electronics was founded in Its main profiles were the production of electrical switches, sockets, wires, incandescent lamps, electric fans, electric kettles, and various household electronics.
In , the Tungsram company also started to produce microphones, telephone apparatuses, telephone switchboards and cables.
The Ericsson company also established a factory for telephones and switchboards in Budapest in The first airplane in Austria was Edvard Rusjan 's design, the Eda I, which had its maiden flight in the vicinity of Gorizia on 25 November Between and , the Hungarian aircraft industry began developing.
The most important aero-engine factories were Weiss Manfred Works, GANZ Works, and Hungarian Automobile Joint-stock Company Arad. The locomotive steam engines and wagons, bridge and iron structures factories were installed in Vienna Locomotive Factory of the State Railway Company , founded in , in Wiener Neustadt New Vienna Locomotive Factory , founded in , and in Floridsdorf Floridsdorf Locomotive Factory , founded in The first telegraph connection Vienna — Brno — Prague had started operation in The first telegraph connection between Vienna and Pest—Buda later Budapest was constructed in ,  and Vienna—Zagreb in Austria subsequently joined a telegraph union with German states.
The first telephone exchange was opened in Zagreb 8 January ,    the second was in Budapest 1 May ,  and the third was opened in Vienna 3 June Public telephone stations appeared in the s, and they quickly became widespread in post offices and railway stations.
Two decades before the introduction of radio broadcasting, people could listen to political, economic and sports news, cabaret, music and opera in Budapest daily.
It operated over a special type of telephone exchange system. By , the combined length of the railway tracks of the Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary reached 43, kilometres 26, miles.
Rail transport expanded rapidly in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its predecessor state , the Habsburg Empire , had built a substantial core of railways in the west, originating from Vienna, by Austria's first steam railway from Vienna to Moravia with its terminus in Galicia Bochnie was opened in At that point, the government realized the military possibilities of rail and began to invest heavily in construction.
The government then began to sell off large portions of track to private investors to recoup some of its investments and because of the financial strains of the Revolution and of the Crimean War.
From to , private interests conducted almost all rail construction. During this time, many new areas joined the railway system and the existing rail networks gained connections and interconnections.
This period marked the beginning of widespread rail transportation in Austria-Hungary, and also the integration of transportation systems in the area.
Railways allowed the empire to integrate its economy far more than previously possible, when transportation depended on rivers. After , the Austrian and the Hungarian governments slowly began to renationalize their rail networks, largely because of the sluggish pace of development during the worldwide depression of the s.
Most of this constituted "filling in" of the existing network, although some areas, primarily in the far east, gained rail connections for the first time.
The railway reduced transportation costs throughout the empire, opening new markets for products from other lands of the Dual Monarchy.
By , the total length of the rail networks of Hungarian Kingdom reached 22, kilometres 14, miles , the Hungarian network linked more than 1, settlements.
This has ranked Hungarian railways the 6th most dense in the world ahead of Germany and France. Horse-drawn tramways appeared in the first half of the 19th century.
Between the s and s many were built. Vienna , Budapest , Brno Steam trams appeared in the late s. The electrification of tramways started in the late s.
The first electrified tramway in Austria-Hungary was built in Budapest in The Budapest Metro Line 1 originally the "Franz Joseph Underground Electric Railway Company" is the second oldest underground railway in the world  the first being the London Underground's Metropolitan Line and the third being Glasgow , and the first on the European mainland.
It was built from to and opened on 2 May In the engineer C. Wagenführer drew up plans to link the Danube and the Adriatic Sea by a canal from Vienna to Trieste.
It was born from the desire of Austria-Hungary to have a direct link to the Adriatic Sea  but was never constructed. The riverbed rocks and the associated rapids made the gorge valley an infamous passage for shipping.
In German, the passage is still known as the Kataraktenstrecke, even though the cataracts are gone. Near the actual " Iron Gates " strait the Prigrada rock was the most important obstacle until the river widened considerably here and the water level was consequently low.
Upstream, the Greben rock near the "Kazan" gorge was notorious. The length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1, kilometres miles.
It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain , which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area.
The most important seaport was Trieste today part of Italy , where the Austrian merchant marine was based. Two major shipping companies Austrian Lloyd and Austro-Americana and several shipyards were located there.
From to , Venice had been part of the Habsburg empire. The loss of Venice prompted the development of the Austrian merchant marine. By , the commercial marine of Austria, comprised 16, vessels with a tonnage of ,, and crews number-ing 45, Of the total of , tons were steamers, and 16, of 48, tons were sailing vessels  The Austrian Lloyd was one of the biggest ocean shipping companies of the time.
Prior to the beginning of World War I, the company owned 65 middle-sized and large steamers. The Austro-Americana owned one third of this number, including the biggest Austrian passenger ship, the SS Kaiser Franz Joseph I.
In comparison to the Austrian Lloyd, the Austro-American concentrated on destinations in North and South America. The ships of the Austro-Hungarian navy were built in Trieste's shipyards.
Pola Pula , today part of Croatia was also especially significant for the navy. The most important seaport for the Hungarian part of the k. The commercial marine of the Kingdom of Hungary in comprised vessels of , tons, and crews numbering 3, Of the total number of vessels , of , tons were steamers, and of 1, tons were sailing vessels.
The Austro-Hungarian Army was under the command of Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen — , an old-fashioned bureaucrat who opposed modernization.
Its military force was composed of the common army ; the special armies, namely the Austrian Landwehr , and the Hungarian Honved , which were separate national institutions, and the Landsturm or levy-en masse.
As stated above, the common army stood under the administration of the joint minister of war, while the special armies were under the administration of the respective ministries of national defence.
The yearly contingent of recruits for the army was fixed by the military bills voted on by the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments and was generally determined on the basis of the population, according to the last census returns.
It amounted in to , men, of which Austria furnished 59, men, and Hungary 43, Besides 10, men were annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12, to the Hungarian Honved.
The term of service was two years three years in the cavalry with the colours, seven or eight in the reserve and two in the Landwehr; in the case of men not drafted to the active army the same total period of service was spent in various special reserves.
The common minister of war was the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr and of the Hungarian Honved, which were committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states.
But the supreme command of the army was nominally vested in the monarch, who had the power to take all measures regarding the whole army.
In practice, the emperor's nephew Archduke Albrecht was his chief military advisor and made the policy decisions.
The Austro-Hungarian navy was mainly a coast defence force, and also included a flotilla of monitors for the Danube. It was administered by the naval department of the ministry of war.
Russian Pan-Slavic organizations sent aid to the Balkan rebels and so pressured the tsar's government to declare war on the Ottoman Empire in in the name of protecting Orthodox Christians.
With help from Romania and Greece, Russia defeated the Ottomans and with the Treaty of San Stefano tried to create a large pro-Russian Bulgaria.
This treaty sparked an international uproar that almost resulted in a general European war. Austria-Hungary and Britain feared that a large Bulgaria would become a Russian satellite that would enable the tsar to dominate the Balkans.
British prime minister Benjamin Disraeli moved warships into position against Russia to halt the advance of Russian influence in the eastern Mediterranean so close to Britain's route through the Suez Canal.
The Congress of Berlin rolled back the Russian victory by partitioning the large Bulgarian state that Russia had carved out of Ottoman territory and denying any part of Bulgaria full independence from the Ottomans.
Austria occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina as a way of gaining power in the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania became fully independent.
Nonetheless, the Balkans remained a site of political unrest with teeming ambition for independence and great power rivalries. As a result, Greater Bulgaria was broken up and Serbian independence was guaranteed.
In another measure to keep the Russians out of the Balkans, Austria-Hungary formed an alliance, the Mediterranean Entente, with Britain and Italy in and concluded mutual defence pacts with Germany in and Romania in against a possible Russian attack.
Anxious about Balkan instability and Russian aggression, and to counter French interests in Europe, Austria-Hungary forged a defensive alliance with Germany in October and in May In October Italy joined this partnership in the Triple Alliance largely because of Italy's imperial rivalries with France.
Tensions between Russia and Austria-Hungary remained high, so Bismarck replaced the League of the Three Emperors with the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia to keep the Habsburgs from recklessly starting a war over Pan-Slavism.
The annexation in led some in Vienna to contemplate combining Bosnia and Herzegovina with Croatia to form a third Slavic component of the monarchy.
The deaths of Franz Joseph's brother, Maximilian , and his only son, Rudolf made the Emperor's nephew, Franz Ferdinand , heir to the throne.
The Archduke was rumoured to have been an advocate for this trialism as a means to limit the power of the Hungarian aristocracy.
A proclamation issued on the occasion of its annexation to the Habsburg Monarchy in promised these lands constitutional institutions, which should secure to their inhabitants full civil rights and a share in the management of their own affairs by means of a local representative assembly.
In performance of this promise a constitution was promulgated in This included a Territorial Statute Landesstatut with the setting up of a Territorial Diet, regulations for the election and procedure of the Diet, a law of associations, a law of public meetings, and a law dealing with the district councils.
According to this statute Bosnia-Herzegovina formed a single administrative territory under the responsible direction and supervision of the Ministry of Finance of the Dual Monarchy in Vienna.
The administration of the country, together with the carrying out of the laws, devolved upon the Territorial Government in Sarajevo, which was subordinate and responsible to the Common Ministry of Finance.
The existing judicial and administrative authorities of the Territory retained their previous organization and functions. That statute introduced the modern rights and laws in Bosnia — Herzegovina, and it guaranteed generally the civil rights of the inhabitants of the Territory, namely citizenship, personal liberty, protection by the competent judicial authorities, liberty of creed and conscience, preservation of the national individuality and language, freedom of speech, freedom of learning and education, inviolability of the domicile, secrecy of posts and telegraphs, inviolability of property, the right of petition, and finally the right of holding meetings.
The Diet Sabor of Bosnia-Herzegovina set up consisted of a single Chamber, elected on the principle of the representation of interests.
It numbered 92 members. Of these 20 consisted of representatives of all the religious confessions, the president of the Supreme Court, the president of the Chamber of Advocates, the president of the Chamber of Commerce, and the mayor of Sarajevo.
In addition to these were 72 deputies, elected by three curiae or electoral groups. The first curia included the large landowners, the highest taxpayers, and people who had reached a certain standard of education without regard to the amount they paid in taxes.
To the second curia belonged inhabitants of the towns not qualified to vote in the first; to the third, country dwellers disqualified in the same way.
With this curial system was combined the grouping of the mandates and of the electors according to the three dominant creeds Catholic, Serbian Orthodox, Muslim.
To the adherents of other creeds the right was conceded of voting with one or other of the religious electoral bodies within the curia to which they belonged.
On 28 June , Archduke Franz Ferdinand visited the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. It injured some people nearby, and Franz Ferdinand's convoy could carry on.
The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them quickly. About an hour later, when Franz Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo Hospital, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where Gavrilo Princip by coincidence stood.
With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. The reaction among the Austrian people was mild, almost indifferent.
As historian Z. Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened.
The assassination excessively intensified the existing traditional religion-based ethnic hostilities in Bosnia. However, in Sarajevo itself, Austrian authorities encouraged   violence against the Serb residents, which resulted in the Anti-Serb riots of Sarajevo , in which Catholic Croats and Bosnian Muslims killed two and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings.
While the empire's military spending had not even doubled since the Congress of Berlin , Germany's spending had risen fivefold, and the British, Russian, and French expenditures threefold.
The empire had lost ethnic Italian areas to Piedmont because of nationalist movements that had swept through Italy, and many Austro-Hungarians perceived as imminent the threat of losing to Serbia the southern territories inhabited by Slavs.
Serbia had recently gained considerable territory in the Second Balkan War of , causing much distress in government circles in Vienna and Budapest.
Former ambassador and foreign minister Count Alois Aehrenthal had assumed that any future war would be in the Balkan region.
He used the hitherto unknown word "Weltkrieg" meaning World War. On the day of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Tisza immediately traveled to Vienna where he met Minister of Foreign Affairs Count Leopold Berchtold and Army Commander Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf.
They proposed to solve the dispute with arms, attacking Serbia. Tisza proposed to give the government of Serbia time to take a stand as to whether it was involved in the organisation of the murder and proposed a peaceful resolution, arguing that the international situation would settle soon.
Returning to Budapest, he wrote to Emperor Franz Joseph saying he would not take any responsibility for the armed conflict because there was no proof that Serbia had plotted the assassination.
Tisza opposed a war with Serbia, stating correctly, as it turned out that any war with the Serbs was bound to trigger a war with Russia and hence a general European war.
He thought that even a successful Austro-Hungarian war would be disastrous for the integrity of Kingdom of Hungary, where Hungary would be the next victim of Austrian politics.
After a successful war against Serbia, Tisza foresaw a possible Austrian military attack against the Kingdom of Hungary, where the Austrians want to break up the territory of Hungary.
Some members of the government, such as Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, had wanted to confront the resurgent Serbian nation for some years in a preventive war, but the Emperor, 84 years old and an enemy of all adventures, disapproved.
I presented His Majesty [Wilhelm] with [Franz Joseph's] letter and the attached memorandum. The Kaiser read both papers quite carefully in my presence.
First, His Majesty assured me that he had expected us to take firm action against Serbia, but he had to concede that, as a result of the conflicts facing [Franz Joseph], he needed to take into account a serious complication in Europe, which is why he did not wish to give any definite answer prior to consultations with the chancellor As mentioned, he first had to consult with the Chancellor, but he did not have the slightest doubt that Herr von Bethmann Hollweg would fully agree with him, particularly with regard to action on our part against Serbia.
In his [Wilhelm's] opinion, though, there was no need to wait patiently before taking action. The Kaiser said that Russia's stance would always be a hostile one, but he had been prepared for this for many years, and even if war broke out between Austria-Hungary and Russia, we could rest assured that Germany would take our side, in line with its customary loyalty.
According to the Kaiser, as things stood now, Russia was not at all ready for war. It would certainly have to think hard before making a call to arms.
But now the leaders of Austria-Hungary, especially General Count Leopold von Berchtold, backed by its ally Germany, decided to confront Serbia militarily before it could incite a revolt; using the assassination as an excuse, they presented a list of ten demands called the July Ultimatum ,  expecting Serbia would never accept.
When Serbia accepted nine of the ten demands but only partially accepted the remaining one, Austria-Hungary declared war.
Franz Joseph I finally followed the urgent counsel of his top advisers. Over the course of July and August , these events caused the start of World War I , as Russia mobilized in support of Serbia, setting off a series of counter-mobilizations.
In support of his German ally, on Thursday, 6 August , Emperor Franz Joseph signed the declaration of war on Russia.
Italy initially remained neutral, although it had an alliance with Austria-Hungary. In , it switched to the side of the Entente powers , hoping to gain territory from its former ally.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire played a relatively passive diplomatic role in the war, as it was increasingly dominated and controlled by Germany.
Instead as the war went on the ethnic unity declined; the Allies encouraged breakaway demands from minorities and the Empire faced disintegration.
Starting in late the new Emperor Karl removed the pro-German officials and opened peace overtures to the Allies, whereby the entire war could be ended by compromise, or perhaps Austria would make a separate peace from Germany.
Austria was only willing to turn over the Trentino region but nothing more. As the Imperial economy collapsed into severe hardship and even starvation, its multi-ethnic army lost its morale and was increasingly hard-pressed to hold its line.
In the capital cities of Vienna and Budapest, the leftist and liberal movements and opposition parties strengthened and supported the separatism of ethnic minorities.
As it became apparent that the Allies would win the war, nationalist movements, which had previously been calling for a greater degree of autonomy for their majority areas, started demanding full independence.
The Emperor had lost much of his power to rule, as his realm disintegrated. The heavily rural Empire did have a small industrial base, but its major contribution was manpower and food.
On the home front, food grew scarcer and scarcer, as did heating fuel. The hog population fell 90 percent, as the dwindling supplies of ham and bacon percent of the Army.
Hungary, with its heavy agricultural base, was somewhat better fed. The Army conquered productive agricultural areas in Romania and elsewhere, but refused to allow food shipments to civilians back home.
Morale fell every year, and the diverse nationalities gave up on the Empire and looked for ways to establish their own nation states. Inflation soared, from an index of in to in , wiping out the cash savings of the middle-class.
In terms of war damage to the economy, the war used up about 20 percent of the GDP. The dead soldiers amounted to about four percent of the labor force, and the wounded ones to another six percent.
Compared all the major countries in the war, the death and casualty rate was toward the high-end regarding the present-day territory of Austra.
By summer , "Green Cadres" of army deserters formed armed bands in the hills of Croatia-Slavonia and civil authority disintegrated. By late October violence and massive looting erupted and there were efforts to form peasant republics.
However, the Croatian political leadership was focused on creating a new state Yugoslavia and worked with the advancing Serbian army to impose control and end the uprisings.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire conscripted 7. Franz Joseph I, who was much too old to command the army, appointed Archduke Friedrich von Österreich-Teschen as Supreme Army Commander Armeeoberkommandant , but asked him to give Von Hötzendorf freedom to take any decisions.
Von Hötzendorf remained in effective command of the military forces until Emperor Karl I took the supreme command himself in late and dismissed Conrad von Hötzendorf in Meanwhile, economic conditions on the homefront deteriorated rapidly.
The Empire depended on agriculture, and agriculture depended on the heavy labor of millions of men who were now in the Army. Food production fell, the transportation system became overcrowded, and industrial production could not successfully handle the overwhelming need for munitions.
Germany provided a great deal of help, but it was not enough. Furthermore, the political instability of the multiple ethnic groups of Empire now ripped apart any hope for national consensus in support of the war.
Increasingly there was a demand for breaking up the Empire and setting up autonomous national states based on historic language-based cultures.
The new Emperor sought peace terms from the Allies, but his initiatives were vetoed by Italy. At the start of the war, the army was divided into two: the smaller part attacked Serbia while the larger part fought against the formidable Imperial Russian Army.
The invasion of Serbia in was a disaster: by the end of the year, the Austro-Hungarian Army had taken no territory, but had lost , out of a total force of , men.
However, in the autumn of , the Serbian Army was defeated by the Central Powers, which led to the occupation of Serbia. Near the end of , in a massive rescue operation involving more than 1, trips made by Italian, French and British steamers, , Serb surviving soldiers were transported to Brindisi and Corfu , where they waited for the chance of the victory of Allied Powers to reclaim their country.
Corfu hosted the Serbian government in exile after the collapse of Serbia and served as a supply base to the Greek front.
In April a large number of Serbian troops were transported in British and French naval vessels from Corfu to mainland Greece.
The contingent numbering over , relieved a much smaller army at the Macedonian front and fought alongside British and French troops.
On the Eastern front , the war started out equally poorly. The Russian Third Army perished. From June , the Russians focused their attacks on the Austro-Hungarian army in the Brusilov Offensive , recognizing the numerical inferiority of the Austro-Hungarian army.
The Battle of Zborov was the first significant action of the Czechoslovak Legions , who fought for the independence of Czechoslovakia against the Austro-Hungarian army.
However the huge losses in men and material inflicted on the Russians during the offensive contributed greatly to the revolutions of , and it caused an economic crash in the Russian Empire.
In May , Italy attacked Austria-Hungary. Chief of Staff Luigi Cadorna marched his army towards the Isonzo river, hoping to seize Ljubljana , and to eventually threaten Vienna.
However, the Royal Italian Army were halted on the river, where four battles took place over five months 23 June — 2 December The fight was extremely bloody and exhausting for both the contenders.
On 15 May , the Austrian Chief of Staff Conrad von Hötzendorf launched the Strafexpedition " punitive expedition " : the Austrians broke through the opposing front and occupied the Asiago plateau.
The Italians managed to resist and in a counteroffensive seized Gorizia on 9 August. Nonetheless, they had to stop on the Carso , a few kilometres away from the border.
At this point, several months of indecisive trench warfare ensued analogous to the Western front. As the Russian Empire collapsed as a result of the Bolshevik Revolution and Russians ended their involvement in the war , Germans and Austrians were able to move on the Western and Southern fronts much manpower from the erstwhile Eastern fighting.
Italy, although suffering massive casualties, recovered from the blow, and a coalition government under Vittorio Emanuele Orlando was formed.
Italy also enjoyed support by the Entente powers: by , large amounts of war materials and a few auxiliary American, British, and French divisions arrived in the Italian battle zone.
The multiethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire started to disintegrate, leaving its army alone on the battlefields. The final battle was at Vittorio Veneto ; after 4 days of stiff resistance, Italian troops crossed the Piave River, and after losing 90, men the defeated Austrian troops retreated in disarray pursued by the Italians.
The Italians captured , Austrian-Hungarian soldiers about one-third of the imperial-royal army , 24 of whom were generals,  5, cannons and mortars, and 4, machine guns.
These events marked the end of Austria-Hungary, which collapsed on 31 October The armistice was signed at Villa Giusti on 3 November. On 27 August , Romania declared war against Austria-Hungary.Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between and It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of and was dissolved following its defeat in the First World War.. The union was established by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise on 30 March in the aftermath . Translation for 'Österreich-Ungarn' in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations.